What is Digital Signature Certificate (DSC)?
Digital Signature Certificate (DSC) is a legally recognised method of signing documents electronically. A digital signature is a type of asymmetric cryptography used to simulate the security properties of a handwritten signature on paper. Digital signature schemes normally give two algorithms, one for signing that involves the user's secret or private key, and one for verifying signatures that involves the user's public key. The output of the signature process is called digital signature.
Digital signature certificates are used by programs on the Internet and local machines to confirm the identity of a third party.
Digital signatures have often confused with scanned copies of a physical written signature, which do not have any legal backing for authentication of electronic documents.
What is Memorandum of Association (MOA)?
Memorandum of Association (MOA) is the charter document of a company. A company is created by registering a memorandum.
MOA contains the name of a company, the state in which the registered office of the company is located, objectives, and its authorised capital. The MOA has to be executed by the initial promoters of the company. The subscription to MOA should also require to be witnessed.
The details of subscribers to the MOA cannot be amended or changed at any point of time during the life of the company, as it constitutes the document giving birth to a company. Subsequent changes in the shareholding or directorship of the company should be reflected in its internal records and will not affect the subscriber details in the MOA.
What is Articles of Association (AOA)?
Articles of Association (AOA) is the bylaws of a company and can be filed along with the incorporation document.
AOA contains rules and regulations for the management of a company’s internal affairs and conduct of its business. It defines the relationship of company between its members and directors and relation between members and directors. It also describes powers of directors. Further, the AOA describes the rights and duties of its members as well as the duties and responsibilities of its directors.
In case of a private limited company, the AOA will contain the restrictions of transfer of shares, if any. Also, AOA usually contains the names of first directors of a company.
The AOA has to be executed by the initial promoters of the company. The subscription to AOA should also require to be witnessed.
The details of subscribers to the AOA cannot be amended or changed at any point of time during the life of the company, as it constitutes the document giving birth to a company. Subsequent changes in the shareholding or directorship of the company should be reflected in its internal records and will not affect the subscriber details in the AOA.
What is Registered Office?
Registered Office refers to the official correspondence address of a company or its principal place of business. The address of the Registered Office will be used for all official communications of the company.
Registered Office of the company can be shifted from one place to another in the same state or from one state to another after complying with legal requirements.
The company shall affix the name and address of its registered office outside every office or place of business in a prominent position. Also, the name and address of its registered office should be mentioned in its business letters, bills and other official publications.
What is Authorised Capital?
Authorised Capital or Registered Capital of a company is the upper limit of capital that a company can issue shares and collect money from shareholders. Company registration fee is payable to ROC and will be calculated on the basis of Authorised Capital.
There is no minimum capital requirements for private company. Authorised capital can be enhanced at any time by passing a resolution at a meeting of shareholders and requisite fee for increase of capital is to be paid to the Registrar of Companies.
What is Subscribed Capital?
Subscribed capital refers to the amount of capital agreed to be brought in by the shareholders to the company.
What is Paid up Capital?
Paid up capital of a company refers to the amount of capital actually brought in by the shareholders to the company.
What is the minimum capital required to register a company?
There is no minimum capital (Authorised or Paid up Capital) requirement for registering a company. However, the registration fee payable to the Registrar of companies depends on the different slabs of Authorised capital of the company.
What is Corporate Identification Number (CIN)?
CIN is the number allotted to a company registered in India by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Government of India.
CIN is a 21-digit number that contains the information such as Status (listed / unlisted), NIC code of business activity, State of registration, Year of registration, Private or Public and the Registration Number in the respective state (for example, U-74110-KA-2008-PTC-046914)